The University of Colorado Global Emergency Care Initiative supports research efforts and growth of research networks in order to transform evidence based findings into distinct policy options that promote, protect and restore health. 


selected Research Publications


Geduld H, Calvello Hynes EJ, Wallis L, Reynolds T. Hospital proximity does not guarantee access to emergency care. Lancet Glob Health. 2018 Jul; 6(7):e731.

Mould-Millman NK, Meese H, Alattas I, Ido M, Yi I, Oyewumi O, Colman M, Frankel M, Yancey A. The accuracy of prehospital identification of stroke in a large stroke belt municipality. Prehosp Emerg Care. 2018 Mar 29:1-9. doi: 10.1080/10903127.2018.1447620. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 29596006

Bae, C., Pigoga, J., M., Cox, M., Hollong, B., Kalanzi, J., Abbas, G., Wallis, L.A., Calvello Hynes, E.J. Evaluating emergency care capacity in Africa: An iterative, multi-country refinement of the Emergency Care Assessment Tool. BMJ Global Health. 2018;3:e001138. doi:10.1136/ bmjgh-2018-001138

Broccoli MC, Pigoga J, Nyrienda M, Wallis LA, Calvello Hynes EJ. Essential medicines for emergency care in Africa. Emerg Med J. 2018 Jul;35(7):412-419. doi: 10.1136/emermed-2017-207396. Epub 2018 Apr 7. (Co-published in the African Journal of Emergency Medicine)

Broccoli MC, Moresky R, Dixon J, Muya I, Taubman C, Wallis L, Calvello Hynes EJ. Defining quality indicators for emergency care delivery: findings of an expert consensus process by emergency care practitioners in Africa. BMJ Glob Health. 2018;3(1): e000479. doi: 10.1136/bmjgh-2017-000479. Epub 2018 Feb 15.

Schmid K, Mould-Millman NK, Quiros R, Montoya M, Lowenstein S. Teaching hands-only CPR in schools: a program evaluation in San José, Costa Rica. Ann Glob Health. [Accepted Jan-28-2018; Ref: AOGH-D-17-00124]. Forthcoming 2018.

Richards D, Hunter L, Myers C, Forey K, Wylie E, Lategan H, Van Hoving D. Demographics and predictors of mortality in children undergoing resuscitation at Khayelitsha Hospital, Western Cape, South Africa. SAJCH. [Accepted Jan-2018]. Forthcoming 2018.


Mould-Millman NK, Dixon JM, Sefa N, Yancey A, Hollong BG, Hagahmed M, Ginde AA, Wallis LA. The state of emergency medical services (EMS) in Africa. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2017 Jun; 32(3):273-283. doi: 10.1017/S1049023X17000061. Epub 2017 Feb 23.

Nicolson B, McCollough C, Wachira B, Mould-Millman NK. Emergency medical services (EMS) training in Kenya: findings and recommendations from an educational assessment. Afr J Emerg Med. AFJEM_2017_28_R1[Online publication: 2017 Aug 8. doi: 10.1016/j.afjem.2017.06.002].

Oberfoell S, Murphy D, French A, Trent S, Richards D. Inter-rater reliability of sonographic optic nerve sheath diameter measurements by emergency medicine physicians. J Ultrasound Med. 2017 Aug;36(8):1579-84. doi: 10.7863/ultra.16.05055. Epub 2017 Apr 3.

Sorensen C, Borbor-Cordova M, Calvello Hynes EJ, Diaz A, Lemer J, Stewart A. Climate variability, vulnerability and natural disasters: a case study of zika virus in Manabi, Ecuador following the 2016 earthquake. GeoHealth. 2017 Oct;1. 

Murphy DL, Oberfoell SH, Trent SA, French AJ, Kim DJ, Richards DB. Validation of a low-cost optic nerve sheath ultrasound phantom: An educational tool. J Med Ultrasound. 2017 Apr-Jun;25(2):96-100. doi: 10.1016/j.jmu.2017.01.003. Epub 2017 Mar 8.

Tyler MD, Richards DB, Reske-Nielsen C, Saghafi O, Morse EA, Carey R, Jacquet GA. The epidemiology of drowning in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review. BMC Public Health. 2017 May 8;17(1):413. doi: 10.1186/s12889-017-4239-2.


Mould-Millman NK, Stein C, Wallis LA. Time to standardise levels of care amongst out-of-hospital emergency care providers in Africa. Afr J Emerg Med. 2016 Mar 31;6(1):54-5.

Schmid KM, Mould-Millman NK, Hammes A, Kroehl M, García RQ, McDermott MU, Lowenstein SR. Barriers and facilitators to community CPR education in San José, Costa Rica. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2016 Oct;31(5):509-15. doi: 10.1017/S1049023X16000777. Epub 2016 Aug 5.

Stein C, Mould-Millman NK, De Vries S, Wallis L. Access to out-of-hospital emergency care in Africa: Consensus conference recommendations. Afr J Emerg Med. 2016 Sep 30;6(3):158-61.

Burkholder TW, King RA. Emergency physicians as good samaritans: survey of frequency, locations, supplies and medications. West J Emerg Med. 2016 Jan;17(1):15-7. doi: 10.5811/westjem.2015.11.28884. Epub 2016 Jan 12.

Bellows JW. Shift relief. Acad Emerg Med. 2017 Feb;24(4), 494-95. doi:10.1111/acem.13149


Mould-Millman NK, de Vries S, Stein C, Kafwamfwa M, Dixon J, Yancey A, Laba B, Overton J, McDaniel R, Wallis LA. Developing emergency medical dispatch systems in Africa–recommendations of the African Federation for Emergency Medicine/International Academies of Emergency Dispatch Working Group. Afr J Emerg Med. 2015 Sep 30;5(3):141-7.

Mould-Millman NK, Oteng R, Zakariah AN, Osei-Ampofo M, Oduro G, Barsan W, Kowalenko TK. Assessment of emergency medical services in the Ashanti region of Ghana. Ghana Med J. 2015 Sep;49(3):125-35. PMID: 26693186

Mould-Millman NK, Rominski SD, Bogus J, Zakariah AN, Akoriyea SK, Achena CB, Ginde AA, Campbell TB. Barriers to accessing emergency medical services in Accra, Ghana. Glob Health Sci Pract. 2015 Dec 17;3(4):577-90. doi: 10.9745/GHSP-D-15-00170. PMID: 26681705

Broccoli M, Calvello EJB, Skog A, Wachira B, Wallis, L. Perceptions of emergency care in Kenyan communities lacking access to formalised emergency medical systems: a qualitative study. BMJ Open. 2015; 5:e009208. doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2015-009208.

Calvello EJ, Tenner AG, Broccoli M, Skog A, Muck A, Tupesis J, et al. Operationalizing emergency care systems in sub-Saharan Africa: consensus-based recommendations for health care facilities. Emerg Med J. 2015;0:1–8. doi:10.1136/emermed-2015-204994

Calvello EJB. Dawn of the new era – emergency care integration into African health systems. Invited editorial. Afr J Emerg Med. 2015; 5.

Papali A, McCurdy M, Calvello EJB. A “3 Delays” model for severe sepsis in resource limited countries. J Crit Care. 2015 Aug;30(4):861.e9-861.e14. doi: 10.1016/j.jcrc.2015.04.003.

Calvello EJB, Skog A, Tenner A, Wallis LA. Decreasing delays during every emergency: applying lessons learned from Millennium Development Goal 5 to global emergency health. Bull World Health Organ. 2015; 93:417-423.

Verma V, Singh GK, Calvello EJB, Kumar S, Singh C, Harjai M. Predictors of one year mortality in adult injured patients admitted to the trauma centre of KGMU. Int J Crit Illn Inj Sci. 2015; 5(2): 73-79.